declare – Declare a variable, set or display its value and properties

The declare command in Linux is used to declare variables, set their values, and display their properties. It can also be used to set the attributes of variables, such as their type and scope. This command is mainly used in shell scripts to define variables and their properties.


The syntax for the declare command is as follows:

declare [options] [name[=value] ...]

Here, name is the name of the variable to be declared, and value is the value to be assigned to the variable.

Some examples of using the declare command are:

# Declare a variable with a value
declare var=10

# Declare a variable with a type
declare -i num

# Declare a variable with a readonly attribute
declare -r const=100

In the first example, a variable named var is declared and assigned a value of 10. In the second example, a variable named num is declared with an integer type. In the third example, a variable named const is declared with a readonly attribute and assigned a value of 100.

The declare command can also be used to display the properties of a variable. For example:

# Display the properties of a variable
declare -p var

This will display the properties of the variable named var, including its value, type, and attributes.


The following options are available with the declare command:

Option Description
-f Specifies that the variable is a function.
-i Specifies that the variable is an integer.
-a Specifies that the variable is an array.
-r Specifies that the variable is readonly.
-x Specifies that the variable is exported.
-p Displays the properties of the variable.

Troubleshooting Tips

If you encounter issues with the declare command, try the following troubleshooting tips:

  • Double-check the syntax of the command to ensure that it is correct.
  • Make sure that the variable name and value are correctly specified.
  • Check that the variable type and attributes are correctly specified.


  • The declare command is a built-in command in most Linux distributions and does not require any additional packages or installations.
  • It is important to correctly specify the type and attributes of variables to ensure that they are used correctly in shell scripts.