How Closures Work in JavaScript

How Closures Work in JavaScript

Closures are an essential concept in JavaScript that every developer should know. A closure is a function that has access to the variables in its outer scope, even after the outer function has returned. In simpler terms, a closure is a function that remembers the environment in which it was created.

How Closures Work in JavaScript

In JavaScript, when a function is executed, a new execution context is created, which has access to the function’s local variables and parameters. When a function returns, its execution context is destroyed, and its local variables and parameters are no longer accessible.

However, if a function returns another function, the returned function can still access the local variables and parameters of its parent function, even after the parent function has returned. This is because the returned function forms a closure over the parent function’s environment, which includes the local variables and parameters.

Example of Closures in JavaScript

Let’s take a look at an example to understand closures better.

function outerFunction() {
  var outerVariable = "I am in the outer function";

  function innerFunction() {

  return innerFunction;

var innerFunc = outerFunction();
innerFunc(); // Output: "I am in the outer function"

In the above example, we have an outer function that defines a local variable called outerVariable. The outer function also defines an inner function called innerFunction, which logs the value of outerVariable to the console.

The outer function returns the inner function, which is then assigned to the variable innerFunc. When we call innerFunc(), it logs the value of outerVariable to the console, even though outerFunction() has already returned.

This happens because innerFunction forms a closure over the environment of outerFunction, which includes the local variable outerVariable. Even though outerFunction() has returned, the closure still has access to outerVariable.

Benefits of Using Closures

Closures are useful in many situations, such as:

  • Encapsulation: Closures can be used to encapsulate private data and methods, preventing them from being accessed from outside the function.
  • Data Hiding: Closures can be used to hide implementation details and only expose a public interface.
  • Function Factories: Closures can be used to create functions with pre-configured settings or parameters.


Closures are a powerful concept in JavaScript that can be used to create more efficient and modular code. Understanding how closures work and their benefits can help you write better code and improve your overall programming skills.