DOM (Document Object Model)
May 20, 2023
The Document Object Model (DOM) is a programming interface for web documents. It represents the page so that programs can change the document structure, style, and content. The DOM represents the document as nodes and objects. That way, programming languages can interact with the page.
Purpose of the DOM
Usage of the DOM
The DOM is used extensively in modern web development. It allows developers to create dynamic, interactive web pages and applications that can respond to user input and update content on the fly. Some common use cases for the DOM include:
- Manipulating HTML and CSS: Developers can use the DOM to add, remove, and modify HTML and CSS elements within a web page. This makes it possible to create dynamic web pages that can update in real-time based on user input.
- Adding interactivity: The DOM allows developers to add interactivity to web pages by responding to user events like clicks, keystrokes, and touch events. This makes it possible to create web applications that feel more like native applications.
- Fetching data: Developers can use the DOM to fetch data from external sources like APIs and databases. This data can then be displayed on the web page or used to modify the content and structure of the page.
Nodes and Objects
The DOM represents a web page as a tree-like structure of nodes and objects. Each node represents an element, attribute, or text string in the HTML or XML document. Nodes can have parent-child relationships, sibling relationships, and other types of relationships that reflect the structure of the document.
Objects are used to represent the properties and methods of nodes in the DOM. These objects can be used to manipulate the content and structure of the web page. For example, developers can use objects to:
- Add and remove nodes: Developers can use object methods like
removeChild()to add and remove nodes from the DOM.
- Modify node attributes: Developers can use object properties like
styleto modify the attributes of nodes.
- Manipulate node content: Developers can use object properties like
textContentto modify the content of nodes.
The DOM API includes a wide range of methods and properties that allow developers to interact with the DOM. Some common methods and properties include:
getElementById()– Returns the element with the specified ID
getElementsByTagName()– Returns a collection of elements with the specified tag name
getElementsByClassName()– Returns a collection of elements with the specified class name
querySelector()– Returns the first element that matches the specified CSS selector
querySelectorAll()– Returns a collection of elements that match the specified CSS selector
appendChild()– Adds a new child node to an element
removeChild()– Removes a child node from an element
setAttribute()– Sets the value of an attribute on an element
getAttribute()– Returns the value of an attribute on an element
innerHTML– Sets or returns the HTML content of an element
The DOM is a W3C standard, which means that it should be compatible with all modern web browsers. However, there may be some differences in the way that different browsers implement the DOM API. This can lead to issues with cross-browser compatibility, where a web page works correctly in one browser but not in another.