HTTP status code 419, also known as “Page Expired,” is a non-standard status code. It is primarily used by the Laravel PHP framework to indicate that the CSRF (Cross-Site Request Forgery) token associated with the request has expired or is invalid. In other words, the server is unable to process the request due to the client’s failure to provide a valid CSRF token, which is an essential security feature in modern web applications.
CSRF Tokens and their Importance
CSRF tokens are used to ensure that requests made to a web application originate from a legitimate source. This is achieved by including a unique, hard-to-guess token in each form or request that is generated by the application. When the form is submitted or the request is made, the server checks the token’s validity and only processes the request if the token is valid.
By implementing CSRF tokens, web applications can prevent malicious actors from carrying out CSRF attacks, where unauthorized commands are transmitted from a user that the web application trusts.
Example of a 419 Page Expired Response
Let’s consider a scenario where a user tries to submit a form on a web application, but the CSRF token associated with the form has expired. In this case, the server will return a 419 Page Expired status code.
POST /submit-form HTTP/1.1 Host: example.com Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-Length: 28 field1=value1&field2=value2
HTTP/1.1 419 Page Expired Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Content-Length: 72 <html> <head><title>419 Page Expired</title></head> <body>Page Expired</body> </html>
In this example, the user submits a form with two fields (field1 and field2) to the
/submit-form endpoint. The server returns a 419 Page Expired status code, indicating that the CSRF token has expired or is invalid.
Handling 419 Page Expired Status Codes
As a developer, it is essential to handle 419 Page Expired status codes appropriately. This can be achieved by:
- Ensuring that CSRF tokens are generated and included in each form or request that requires them.
- Implementing proper error handling on the client-side to inform users when a 419 Page Expired status code is received. This may involve displaying an error message or refreshing the page to generate a new CSRF token.
- Monitoring server logs and application analytics to identify recurring instances of 419 status codes, which may indicate an issue with the application’s CSRF token generation or handling.